Lyme disease is a serious illness that is present in Canada and spreading. Canadians at risk from Lyme disease include those, who live, work and/or play in close proximity to ticks that spread the disease.
Risk to Canadians
While not all blacklegged ticks carry Lyme disease, populations of infected blacklegged ticks are growing. This means that the risk of contracting Lyme disease is on the rise across Canada.
Blacklegged ticks can be active throughout much of the year; however, your risk of a tick bite is highest in the spring and summer months. People can come into contact with ticks while participating in outdoor activities, such as golfing, hiking, camping or gardening.
Contact occurs when people and animals brush up against the vegetation found in forests and the overgrown areas between the woods and open spaces.
Take steps to reduce your risk if you spend time outdoors in areas where there may be ticks. As ticks are very small and their bites are usually painless, you may not know you’ve been bitten, so it’s important to be on the lookout for ticks and the symptoms of Lyme disease.
Where are ticks found?
Blacklegged ticks are most often found in forests and the overgrown areas between the woods and open spaces. They are most abundant in the following locations:
- Southern British Columbia
- Southeastern and south-central Manitoba
- Southern, eastern and northwestern Ontario
- Southern Quebec
- Southern New Brunswick and Grand Manan Island
- Parts of Nova Scotia
Ticks don’t move far by themselves but they can attach to migratory birds, and may fall off far from their original location. For this reason, it’s possible to find infected ticks in other areas than the ones listed above. Surveillance is ongoing to confirm other areas of spread.How to protect yourself
Canadians are encouraged to spend time outdoors, be active, and to remember to protect themselves against tick bites by taking these simple steps:
- Wear closed-toe shoes, long-sleeved shirts and pants
- Pull socks over pant legs to prevent ticks from crawling up legs
- Wear light-coloured clothes to spot ticks easier
- Use insect repellents that contain DEET (active ingredient to keep bugs away) or Icaridin. Repellents can be applied to clothing as well as exposed skin. Always read and follow label directions
- Shower or bathe within two hours of being outdoors to wash away loose ticks
- Do a daily “full body” check for ticks on yourself, children and pets
If you find a tick on your skin, removing it within 24-36 hours of the tick bite usually prevents infectionSymptoms
Initial symptoms differ from person to person, which makes Lyme disease very difficult to diagnose. Some people may have no symptoms at all. Others may experience mild symptoms like fever or a skin rash soon after being bitten, while others may suffer severe symptoms, but not for weeks after the bite.
Symptoms of Lyme disease can include one or a combination of the following with varying degrees of severity:
- Fever or chills
- spasms, or weakness
- Numbness or tingling
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Skin rash
Additional symptoms can include:
- Cognitive dysfunction (brain fog) or dizziness
- Nervous system disorders
- Arthritis and arthritic symptoms (muscle and joint pain)
- abnormal heartbeat
- Untreated, symptoms can last months to years. They can include recurring arthritis, neurological problems, numbness and paralysis. Although not common, fatalities from Lyme disease have been reported.
- If you develop symptoms of Lyme disease, contact your health care provider right away, as the earlier you receive a diagnosis, the greater the chance of a successful treatment. If you saved the tick that bit you, bring it with you to your medical appointment. It may help the doctor assess your illness.
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